Geary

Geary Creek (flowing into Columbia River just south of Fairmont), Geary Creek Road

“‘I can’t tell you much about [George Geary], although I knew him well. He was a reserved fellow, never said much about himself but he lived for horses, they were his life.'”74

Geary Creek, located just south of Fairmont Hot Springs, is named after George Geary, who owned property near the mouth of the creek as well as in various other places in the valley.

Early Life

There is not a lot known about Geary’s early life. He is mentioned in later accounts as having been born in Perth, Ontario,1 and census records from 1851 until 1871 show a George Geary living with his family just west of Perth in the township of Bathurst (now part of Tay Valley).2 The year of his birth varies widely depending on the source, ranging from c.1841 on the 1851 census,3 to c.1847 on the 1891 and 1901 censuses,4 and c.1843 on the 1871 and 1911 censuses.5 George Geary appears to be the youngest of three siblings through his father’s (Richard Geary’s) first marriage. His father remarried and had an additional seven children.6

George was living in his father’s household and working as a labourer at the time of the 1871 census, but he had left his father’s household before the census of 1881.7 It is unknown what he did between leaving home and when his name reappears, in British Columbia Public Accounts records for the fiscal period between July 1882 and June 1883, as part of a party engaged in “Explorations” in the Kootenay.8 His name appears again in the 1884-1885 fiscal year as a labourer up the Bull River.9 Later accounts have Geary arriving in the Kootenays as early as 1880,10 although his name does not appear on the 1881 census of the area.

Land Acquisitions in the Windermere Valley

Geary went on to have a variety of land and business interests in the East Kootenays. He was particularly adept at starting business ventures, leaving the day-to-day management to someone else (as a partner), and eventually selling the business outright to that partner. The one constant in his enterprises is that Geary kept a series of horse ranches, and became known as a horse breeder.

Geary is first mentioned as being in the Windermere Valley in a December 1886 newspaper report as one of two “energetic men” with ranches at what is now Fairmont Hot Springs.11 This ranch likely referred to what became District Lot 40, which is mentioned in another land application in February 1887,12 and for which Geary formally submitted a pre-emption application that September.13

Survey map for George Geary’s Lot 40, undated. British Columbia, Crown Land Registry Services, Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks, Victoria. Crown Grant No 661 (1889), Lot 40 (George Geary), British Columbia Land Grants, Vol 32 (no 0570/0032-0688/0032), 1889, FamilySearch Database: img 557 of 754.

Although Lot 40 is the first property in the area that Geary applied for, it is not the last. In January 1888, he also applied to purchase Lot 138,14 which now encompasses the commercial centre of Fairmont. He went on to pre-empt one more parcel of land near Fairmont, in January 1891, along the north-west shore of Columbia Lake (Lot 450).15

The Geary Ranch

Geary’s ownership of two separate properties (Lots 40 and 135) in close proximity to the hot springs at Fairmont results in some confusion when reading through early historical records. In at least two travelogues that recount made through the area in 1887, the authors mention stopping at Geary’s Ranch, which they report as being “the legitimate and licensed stopping place of the road,”16 and operated, “as a kind of hotel.”17

An easy assumption might be made (and I have made) that these early reports were referring to the stopping house operated by Geary and Samuel Brewer, and later just by Brewer, on Lot 138. The Brewer stopping house at Farimont went on to become at least locally famous. Look closer at the timeline, however, and events don’t quite add up. Geary didn’t purchase Lot 138 until January 1888, and a stopping house/ “hotel” wasn’t built on the property until later that spring.18

More likely the “Geary Ranch” mentioned in these 1887 travelogues referred to the authors’ stays on Geary’s Lot 40, which was then located on the “Main Trail” connecting Fairmont and Canal Flats. It is possible that this early tourist business prompted Geary to recognize the potential of a more formal stopping house/hotel closer to the hot springs itself, and to purchase Lot 138 (located on the wagon road) at least in part for the purpose of building such a business.

Geary’s Lot 138, located on the wagon road close to Fairmont Springs. In British Columbia, Crown Land Registry Services, Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks, Victoria. Crown Grant No 771/44, Lot 138 (George Geary, 19 November 1889), British Columbia Land Grants, Vol 44 (no 0689/0044-0803/0044), 1889-1890, FamilySearch Database: img 652 of 885.

The Fairmont Stopping House

Geary spent an unknown amount of time at the Fairmont stopping house. On 1 April 1888 the first post office was established at Fairmont, with Geary as postmaster,19 and through the year 1888, both Brewer and Geary are referred to as “hosts” at the Lot 138 property.20 Geary resigned his position as postmaster at Fairmont Springs on 23 July 1889, however, and was replaced the following spring (1 April 1890) by Sam Brewer.21

At some time during this period, Geary sold his interest in the Fairmont stopping house, and the surrounding property of Lot 138, to Brewer. Dating this change is challenging. In the fiscal year between July 1887 and June 1888 Geary’s name appears alone as a payee in Public Accounts records as providing accommodation for law enforcement at Fairmont,22 while the following year (1888-1889) it is only Brewer’s name that is listed.23 The best we might say is that Geary probably left sometime in 1889, likely at around the same time as he resigned as postmaster.

From Fairmont to Windermere

Geary moved on to other ventures, and in the July 1890-June 1891 fiscal year, his name again appears in Public Accounts records as providing accommodation services, although this time it is out of Windermere and alongside James Stoddart.24

Geary’s shift from Fairmont to Windermere somewhat mirrors his time in Fairmont, as Geary’s roll in the Windermere business is again unclear. In 1891 he and Stoddart are noted as being the proprietors of, “a nice little hotel… with good accommodation,”25 and the 1892 British Columbia Directory (likely with information collected in 1891) lists the Hotel Windermere as being under the ownership of George Geary.26 Even a January 1895 cattle farming agreement in the British Columbia Gazette lists Geary as a hotel keeper (although this could have been of a different hotel – we’ll get to that).27

However, on the 1891 census, Geary is listed as lodging with James Stoddart, who is employed as a hotelkeeper, while Geary’s occupation is listed as a free miner.28 In addition, by 1893 Stoddart is noted by passers through as owning and operating the Windermere Hotel while Geary is, “the village blacksmith and mail carrier.”29 If we again follows the money in Public Accounts records, Stoddart’s name appears alone as a payee for providing accommodation in Windermere starting in the July 1892-June 1893 fiscal year.30 In short, it is likely that Geary provided early capital to the business, left the day-to-day operation to his partner, and was quite willing to be bought out.

Throughout this period living in the Windermere Valley, Geary continued to hold ranch property close to Fairmont Springs. In 1887 he is listed in the British Columbia Directory as a farmer,31 and in 1888 he is noted as keeping cattle and horses.32 By the time of the 1891 Directory he is perhaps more accurately described as a rancher.33

Geary continued to have varied interests as, in 1891, he is also listed as carrying mail between Golden and Windermere.34 He received the mail contract again in 1892 with, “a splendid new outfit.”35 There are also reports of Geary racing his horses in various local challenges, and he gained a respectable reputation for his horses.36

A Move South

Geary’s primary residence through to about 1891 seems to have been Fairmont, and from then through 1896 at Windermere, but in 1897 his business interests shifted further south. In January 1897 he purchased an interest in the Fort Steele livery business previously owned by Freeman and Little, following Little’s retirement.37

Freeman and Geary seem to have worked together for much of the year,38 but in October Geary began listing advertisements as sole owner of the livery stable, and in November issued a notice, “that no partnership ever existed or now exists between Frank Freeman and [myself].”39 This apparent contradiction is never explained.

Advertisement for Freeman and Geary, The Prospector (Fort Steele, B.C.), 20 February 1897, p 4.

Geary’s move to Fort Steele was permanent, and in March 1898 he advertised to rent out the “Geary Hotel and Farm” in Windermere.40 The purchasers, John H. Taynton and Hugh G. Gordon, opened up the Lakeside Hotel on the premises.41 As is often the case, it is unclear the extent to which the “Geary Hotel” operated out of Windermere. The Windermere Hotel (owned by Stoddart) was separate, although that 1895 cattle agreement with Geary listed as a hotel keeper might refer to this.

A Livery Business

Meanwhile, Geary expanded his stables and livery business into Cranbrook, opening up “The Palace” on Norbury Ave (10th Ave) in August 1898,42 before purchasing a lot on Hanson Ave (now 8th Ave; Lot 24 in Block 91) and setting up a stables there.43

Advertisement for “The Palace”, The Cranbrook Herald, 25 August 1898, p 4.

Geary’s livery business was broad. The stables themselves provided teams, single rigs, saddle horses, and pack animals, as well as stabling of other mounts.44 Geary also successfully applied in December 1898 for the contract to carry mail between Windermere and Fort Steele,45 and he put on a passenger stage coach both between Fort Steele and Cranbrook,46 and later between Cranbrook and Kimberley.47 Later still, a stage route was briefly advertised between Fort Steele, Windermere, and Peterborough (Wilmer).48

Initially Geary seems to have managed the Fort Steele part of the business himself, while hiring a separate manager to take care of the Cranbrook stables.49 Then, in July 1899, Geary sold out an interest in the business to Al Doyle, with Doyle “tak[ing] charge of the business.”50 Reading between the lines, it seems that Doyle took over direct management of the Fort Steele branch, as well as indirect control of the Cranbrook branch.51

Advertisement for The Cranbrook Livery, Geary & Doyle. The Cranbrook Herald, 22 December 1904, p 36.

The livery business continued to do well and to expand, with an addition made to the barn in Cranbrook in 1899/1900 that doubled their stable capacity.52 Geary and Doyle went on to buy out a competitor in Cranbrook later that same year.53 It wasn’t until November 1907, as Geary was suffering from ill health, that Geary and Doyle dissolved their partnership and Doyle took over the entirety of the business.54

The Geary and Doyle Livery Stables in Cranbrook, c.1900. Item C-00780, “Doyle and Geary Livery Stables; Cranbrook,” BC Archives.

Dabbling

To some extent this 1907 purchase by Doyle of the entirety of the livery business was a formality, as once again Geary seems to have taken a hands off approach and left the day-to-day management to Doyle ever since Doyle had bought into the business in July 1899. That autumn (1899), Geary is described in newspapers as being, “formerly of Fort Steele, but now of Peterborough [Wilmer]”,55 and he spent a good deal of time prospecting in the Windermere Valley.

Among these mining ventures, Geary was a partner in locating a group of claims in the Paradise basin known as the Garland Group,56 although he sold out his half-interest shortly after the discovery.57 He was also one of the original owners of the Mineral King claim on Toby Creek,58 and had properties on both Bruce and Horsethief Creeks.59 Outside of the Valley, Geary also, “did considerable prospecting in the Bull River district.”60

Meanwhile, Geary continued to own his ranch property near Columbia Lake, and in 1901 is reported to have made a large sale of 100 horses, “or all the bunch of the Armstrong range at Columbia Lake” to be sent to Dublin, Ontario (or perhaps to Pincher Creek).61 Just over a year later a further 30 horses were sold to be shipped to the Northwest Territories (later Alberta/Saskatchewan).62

Despite Geary’s continued financial involvement in the Windermere Valley, the bulk of his investments remained in the Fort Steele area. In March 1898, he pre-empted a property (Lot 3061) just north of Fort Steele,63 where he set up yet another horse ranch. The 1901 Canadian Census places Geary in the Fort Steele area with a household that included a groom and a servant.64 Geary and Doyle also continued to diversify their interests, and in 1903 they purchased timber limits in the Fort Steele area and set up a series of logging camps.65

Failing Health

Geary suffered the first of a series of health events in 1905, when he was in hospital for about two months following, “an attack of appendicitis.”66 Another health setback put Geary back in the hospital in March 1908, this time, “suffering from neuralgia.”67 He was back in the hospital again in 1915, this time in serious condition with a newspaper note, “that he is holding his own and there is a fighting chance to save his life.”68 He recovered, and in July 1917 was supervising a road gang near Fort Steele.69 He continues to be noted in Public Accounts records in the Fernie/Cranbrook districts through to the 1919-1920 fiscal year.70

George Geary passed away on 8 February 1921 at the St Eugene hospital near Cranbrook, and is buried at Fort Steele.71

Geary’s Legacy

Remembrances of Geary following his death were generous, although somewhat sparse on details. He was, “greatly respected, and all who knew him speak well of him as a man of kindly disposition and of sterling worth.” The same author notes that, “his life story, could it have been obtained in full, would have proved intensely interesting.”72

It is unfortunate that his life story was not recorded as, without any children or family in the area, there is not a whole lot recorded about Geary, and a many gaps in information about his life. On one hand, “George [knew] every old timer in the country,”73 and “they all knew him,” but on the other hand, “[They] all … say much the same, ‘I can’t tell you much about him, although I knew him well. He was a reserved fellow, never said much about himself but he lived for horses, they were his life.'”74

According to a much later remembrance of Geary, “It is said of him that he would rarely sell a horse. When he was approached with a view to a sale, the horse would immediately increase in value beyond the financial means of the would-be purchaser. Not because Geary was trying to strike a bargain but because he could not bear to part with his horses.”75 We know from records that this isn’t precisely true, that Geary did sell his horses at times, but this is the closest glimpse into his personality that I was able to find.

The name “Geary Creek” appears on an undated survey map of Geary’s Lot 40 pre-emption, and seems to have been the accepted place name ever since.

See Also

Samuel Brewer
Fairmont Hot Springs
Mineral King Mine
John H Taynton

Footnotes

1. “Well Known Aged Pioneer of this District ‘Goes West’,” Cranbrook Herald, 17 February 1921, p 1. https://dx.doi.org/10.14288/1.0069575
2. 1851 Census, Canada West, Lanark County, Bathurst Township, Part 2, page 115, line 6 (Geo Geary). https://central.bac-lac.gc.ca/.item/?app=Census1851&op=&img&id=e002355029
1861 Census, Canada West, Lanark County, Bathurst Township, Enumeration District No 17, page 60, line 49 (George Geary). https://central.bac-lac.gc.ca/.item/?app=Census1861&op=&img&id=4391557_00633
1871 Census of Canada, Ontario, District No 79 (South Lanark), Sub-District F (Bathurst), page 42, line 9 (George Geary). https://central.bac-lac.gc.ca/.item/?app=Census1871&op=&img&id=4396356_00596
3. 1851 Census, Canada West, Lanark County, Bathurst Township, Part 2, page 115, line 6 (Geo Geary). https://central.bac-lac.gc.ca/.item/?app=Census1851&op=&img&id=e002355029
4. 1891 Census of Canada. British Columbia, District No 5 (Yale), Sub District G (Upper Kootenay), Division No 3, page 1, line 25 (George Geary). https://central.bac-lac.gc.ca/.item/?app=Census1891&op=img&id=30953_148094-00508
1901 Census of Canada. British Columbia, District No 5 (Yale and Cariboo), Sub District E (Kootenay East-South Riding), page 4, line 5 (George Geary). https://central.bac-lac.gc.ca/.item/?app=Census1901&op=&img&id=z000012726
5. 1871 Census of Canada, Ontario, District No 79 (South Lanark), Sub-District F (Bathurst), page 42, line 9 (George Geary). https://central.bac-lac.gc.ca/.item/?app=Census1871&op=&img&id=4396356_00596
1911 Census of Canada, British Columbia, District No 9 (Kootenay), Sub District 17 (Fort Steele), page 3, line 39 (George Geary). https://central.bac-lac.gc.ca/.item/?app=Census1911&op=&img&id=e001936970
6. 1871 Census of Canada, Ontario, District No 79 (South Lanark), Sub-District F (Bathurst), page 42, line 9 (George Geary). https://central.bac-lac.gc.ca/.item/?app=Census1871&op=&img&id=4396356_00596
7. 1881 Census of Canada, Ontario, District No 111 (South Lanark), Sub-District A (Bathurst division 3), page 24, line 4 (Family of Richard Gerie). https://central.bac-lac.gc.ca/.item/?app=Census1881&op=&img&id=e008172292
8. British Columbia. Legislative Assembly. Public Accounts for the Fiscal Year Ended 30th June 1883. Period from 1st July 1882 to 30th June 1883 (Victoria: Government Printer, 1884), p 75. https://dx.doi.org/10.14288/1.0060908
9. British Columbia. Legislative Assembly. Public Accounts for the Fiscal Year Ended 30th June 1885. Period from 1st July 1884 to 30th June 1885 (Victoria: Government Printer, 1885), p 194. https://dx.doi.org/10.14288/1.0061718
10. “Well Known Aged Pioneer of this District ‘Goes West’,” Cranbrook Herald, 17 February 1921, p 1. https://dx.doi.org/10.14288/1.0069575
11. “The Inland Country,” Inland Sentinel (Kamloops B.C.), 23 December 1886, p 1. https://arch.tnrl.ca/
12. “Land Notices” (K.R.S. Clark), The British Columbia Gazette Vol 27, no 7 (17 February 1887), p 103. https://archive.org/embed/governmentgazett27nogove_c4v9
13. Crown Grant No 661 (1889), George Geary, British Columbia Crown Land Grants Vol 32 (no 0570/0032-0688/0032), 1889 [img 556 to 564 of 754]. https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:3QS7-L9WZ-T43W?cc=2052510&wc=M738-7TL%3A351099401%2C351443201
14. Crown Grant No 771/44, George Geary, 19 November 1889, British Columbia Crown Land Grants Vol 44 (no 0689/0044-0803/0044), 1889-1890 [img 651 to 547 of 885]. https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:3QS7-89WZ-TF2?cc=2052510&wc=M738-WWG%3A351099401%2C351497901
“Land Notices” (Geo Geary), The British Columbia Gazette Vol 28, no 9 (1 March 1888), p 85. https://archive.org/embed/governmentgazett28nogove_f0h0
15. “Certificate of Pre-Emption Record,” In Crown Grant No 2274/74, George Geary, British Columbia Crown Land Grants Vol 74 (no 2222/0074-2316/0074), 1893-1895. [img 383 of 660] https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:3QSQ-G9WZ-T8X6?cc=2052510&wc=M738-CNL%3A351099401%2C351593801
16. Ellen Elizabeth Cameron Spragge, From Ontario to the Pacific by the C.P.R. (Toronto: C. Blackett Robnson, 1887), p 111. https://dx.doi.org/10.14288/1.0222134
17. J.A. Lees and Walter J. Clutterbuck, B.C. 1887: A Ramble in British Columbia, (London: Longmans Green and Co, 1888), p 172. https://dx.doi.org/10.14288/1.0222211
18. “Southern Kootenay,” The Victoria Daily Times, 25 July 1888, p 2. https://www.newspapers.com/image/504709416
19. “The Following New Post Offices Were Established in Canada on the 1st April 1888,” The Canada Gazette Vol 21, no 43 (21 April 1888), p 2287. https://www.bac-lac.gc.ca/eng/CollectionSearch/Pages/record.aspx?app=CanGaz&IdNumber=2986
20. “Kootenay News,” The Victoria Daily Times, 31 January 1889, p 1. https://www.newspapers.com/image/505076486
21. Library and Archives Canada, Post Offices and Postmasters. Item 27670: Fairmont Springs in Yale-East Kootenay. https://www.bac-lac.gc.ca/eng/discover/postal-heritage-philately/post-offices-postmasters/Pages/item.aspx?IdNumber=27670&amp
22. British Columbia. Legislative Assembly. Public Accounts for the Fiscal Year Ended 30th June 1888. Period from 1st July 1887 to 30th June 1888 (Victoria: Government Printer, 1889), p 53. https://dx.doi.org/10.14288/1.0062600
23. British Columbia. Legislative Assembly. Public Accounts for the Fiscal Year Ended 30th June 1889. Period from 1st July 1888 to 30th June 1889 (Victoria: Government Printer, 1890), p 57. https://dx.doi.org/10.14288/1.0062840
24. British Columbia. Legislative Assembly. Public Accounts for the Fiscal Year Ended 30th June 1891. Period from 1st July 1890 to 30th June 1891 (Victoria: Government Printer, 1890), p 83. https://dx.doi.org/10.14288/1.0063281
25. “Golden and the Columbia,” Weekly Herald (Calgary A.B.), 17 May 1891, p 5. https://www.newspapers.com/image/479102638
26. Williams’ illustrated official British Columbia directory, 1891 (Victoria: Colonist Stream Print, 1892), p 1226. https://dx.doi.org/10.14288/1.0305642
27. “Cattle Farming Act,” The British Columbia Gazette Vol 35, no 4 (24 January 1895), p 66. https://archive.org/embed/governmentgazett35nogove_n1p9
28. 1891 Census of Canada. British Columbia, District No 5 (Yale), Sub District G (Upper Kootenay), Division No 3, page 1, line 25 (George Geary). https://central.bac-lac.gc.ca/.item/?app=Census1891&op=img&id=30953_148094-00508
29. “A ‘World’ Man on the Wing,” The Golden Era, 22 July 1893, p 2. https://dx.doi.org/10.14288/1.0227097
30. British Columbia. Legislative Assembly. Public Accounts for the Fiscal Year Ended 30th June 1893. Period from 1st July 1892 to 30th June 1893 (Victoria: Government Printer, 1894), p 68. https://dx.doi.org/10.14288/1.0063519
31. Edward Mallandaine, The British Columbia Directory (Victoria: E Mallandaine and R.T. Williams, 1887), p 269. https://dx.doi.org/10.14288/1.0348621
32. “From Windermere,” Calgary Tribune, 15 August 1888, p 4. https://cdm22007.contentdm.oclc.org/digital/collection/p22007coll2/id/191205
33. Williams’ British Columbia directory, 1891 (Victoria: Ellis & Co, 1890), p 38 [378]. https://dx.doi.org/10.14288/1.0222359
34. “Notes from the Interior,” Vancouver Daily World, 15 December 1891, p 7. https://www.newspapers.com/image/63313085
There is some contestation about this: another source has Slade and Wallinger as having received this mail contract. “The Great Interior,” The Victoria Daily Times, 5 December 1892, p 3. https://www.newspapers.com/image/505115701
36. “Local Jottings,” The Golden Era, 3 June 1893, p 1.
https://dx.doi.org/10.14288/1.0227139
“Local Jottings,” The Golden Era, 29 June 1895, p 1.
https://dx.doi.org/10.14288/1.0227083
“Local News,” The Prospector (Fort Steele B.C.), 18 July 1896, p 1. https://dx.doi.org/10.14288/1.0348550
37. “Local News,” The Prospector (Fort Steele B.C.), 23 January 1897, p 1. https://dx.doi.org/10.14288/1.0348493
38. “Local News,” The Prospector (Fort Steele B.C.), 6 February 1897, p 1. https://dx.doi.org/10.14288/1.0348472
[Advertisement], The Prospector (Fort Steele, B.C.), 20 February 1897, p 4.
https://dx.doi.org/10.14288/1.0348438
39. “Notice,” The Prospector (Fort Steele, B.C.), 27 November 1897, p 2. https://dx.doi.org/10.14288/1.0348544
40. “Local News Notes,” The Prospector (Fort Steele, B.C.), 26 March 1898, p 8. https://dx.doi.org/10.14288/1.0348451
41. “Local and General,” The Golden Era, 27 May 1898, p 4.
https://dx.doi.org/10.14288/1.0227241
42. [Advertisement], Cranbrook Herald, 25 August 1898, p 4.
https://dx.doi.org/10.14288/1.0068226
43. “Real Estate Transfers,” Cranbrook Herald, 27 October 1898, p 1. https://dx.doi.org/10.14288/1.0068618
“Local Notes,” Cranbrook Herald, 17 November 1898, p 4.
https://dx.doi.org/10.14288/1.0070671
44. [Advertisement] “The Cranbrook Livery,” The Cranbrook Herald, 22 December 1904, p 39. https://dx.doi.org/10.14288/1.0068568
45. “Local and General,” The Golden Era, 23 December 1898, p 4.
https://dx.doi.org/10.14288/1.0227295
46. “Local News Notes,” The Prospector (Fort Steele, B.C.), 31 December 1898, p 8. https://dx.doi.org/10.14288/1.0348510
[Advertisement], The Prospector (Fort Steele, B.C.), 21 January 1899, p 3. https://dx.doi.org/10.14288/1.0186927
“Local News Notes,” The Prospector (Fort Steele, B.C.), 24 June 1899, p 8. https://dx.doi.org/10.14288/1.0187064
“Local Notes,” Cranbrook Herald, 6 July 1899, p 4.
https://dx.doi.org/10.14288/1.0070335
47. “Local Notes,” Cranbrook Herald, 19 October 1899, p 4.
https://dx.doi.org/10.14288/1.0070240
48. [Advertisement], The Prospector (Fort Steele B.C.), 24 May 1902, p 4. https://dx.doi.org/10.14288/1.0187137
49. “Bob Has Gone Home,” Cranbrook Herald, 4 May 1899, p 1.
https://dx.doi.org/10.14288/1.0068247
50. “Local Notes,” Cranbrook Herald, 27 July 1899, p 4.
https://dx.doi.org/10.14288/1.0068531
51. “An Enjoyable Day,” Cranbrook Herald, 29 May 1902, p 4.
https://dx.doi.org/10.14288/1.0068369
52. “Local Notes,” Cranbrook Herald, 7 December 1899, p 4.
https://dx.doi.org/10.14288/1.0068174
“Local Notes,” Cranbrook Herald, 21 June 1900, p 4.
https://dx.doi.org/10.14288/1.0070370
53. “Local Notes,” Cranbrook Herald, 4 October 1900, p 4.
https://dx.doi.org/10.14288/1.0070354
54. “Notice of Dissolution of Partnership,’” Cranbrook Herald, 21 November 1907, p 7. https://dx.doi.org/10.14288/1.0069702
55. “Mining News,” Nelson Daily Miner, 12 November 1899, p 8.
https://dx.doi.org/10.14288/1.0211452
56. “The Garland Group,” The Outcrop (Canterbury, B.C.), 16 August 1900, p 1. http://peel.library.ualberta.ca/newspapers/OTC/1900/08/16/1/Ar00108.html
57. “Ledge Croppings,” The Outcrop (Canterbury, B.C.), 4 October 1900, p 1. http://peel.library.ualberta.ca/newspapers/OTC/1900/10/04/1/Ar00106.html
58. “Mines and Mining,” The Prospector (Fort Steele, B.C.), 31 December 1898, p 5. https://dx.doi.org/10.14288/1.0348510
59. “Ledge Croppings,” The Outcrop (Canterbury, B.C.), 6 September 1900, p 1. http://peel.library.ualberta.ca/newspapers/OTC/1900/09/06/1/Ar00104.html
60. “Well Known Aged Pioneer of this District ‘Goes West’,” Cranbrook Herald, 17 February 1921, p 1. https://dx.doi.org/10.14288/1.0069575
61. “Car Load of Horses for the East,” Cranbrook Herald, 7 November 1901, p 4. https://dx.doi.org/10.14288/1.0068373
“Fort Steele Items,” Cranbrook Herald, 27 March 1902, p 1.
https://dx.doi.org/10.14288/1.0070663
62. “Fort Steele Items,” Cranbrook Herald, 29 January 1903, p 2.
https://dx.doi.org/10.14288/1.0068621
63. “Local Notes,” Cranbrook Herald, 4 October 1900, p 4.
https://dx.doi.org/10.14288/1.0070354
64. 1901 Census of Canada. British Columbia, District No 5 (Yale and Cariboo), Sub District E (Kootenay East-South Riding), page 4, line 5 (George Geary). https://central.bac-lac.gc.ca/.item/?app=Census1901&op=&img&id=z000012726
65. “Marysville,” The Prospector (Fort Steel, B.C.), 5 December 1903, p 1. https://dx.doi.org/10.14288/1.0186791
“Mining Notes,” The Prospector (Fort Steele, B.C.), 27 February 1904, p 1. https://dx.doi.org/10.14288/1.0186867
“Logging in South-East Kootenay,” The Prospector (Fort Steele, B.C.), 18 June 1904, p 1. https://dx.doi.org/10.14288/1.0187011
“Among the Loggers,” The Prospector (Fort Steele, B.C.), 8 October 1904, p 1. https://dx.doi.org/10.14288/1.0187256
“Kootenay River Logging Camps,” Cranbrook Herald, 26 January 1905, p 6. https://dx.doi.org/10.14288/1.0068279
“Local News,” The Prospector (Cranbrook B.C.), 5 May 1906, p 1.
https://dx.doi.org/10.14288/1.0304691
66. “Local Notes,” Cranbrook Herald, 2 November 1905, p 5. https://dx.doi.org/10.14288/1.0070105
67. “Local Notes,” Cranbrook Herald, 26 March 1908, p 8.
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68. “Town Topics,” Cranbrook Herald, 10 June 1915, p 3.
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69. “Fort Steele,” Cranbrook Herald, 19 July 1917, p 2.
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70. British Columbia. Legislative Assembly. Public Accounts for the Fiscal Year Ended 31st March 1919. Period from 1st April 1918 to 31st March 1919 (Victoria: William H Cullin, Government Printer, 1920), p C 183.
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British Columbia. Legislative Assembly. Public Accounts for the Fiscal Year Ended 31st March 1920. Period from 1st April 1919 to 31st March 1920 (Victoria: William H Cullin, Government Printer, 1921), p B 199, B 257.
https://dx.doi.org/10.14288/1.0224492
71. Death Certificate for George Leary [sic], 9 February 1921. Reg No: 1921-09-292442. BC Archives.
72. “Well Known Aged Pioneer of this District ‘Goes West’,” Cranbrook Herald, 17 February 1921, p 1. https://dx.doi.org/10.14288/1.0069575
73. “Labor Day Notes,” Cranbrook Herald, 6 September 1906, p 8.
https://dx.doi.org/10.14288/1.0068594
74. “George Geary,” Valley History and the Windermere Valley Museum (November 2005), p 4. [Newsletter for the Windermere Valley Museum and Archives]. https://secureservercdn.net/198.71.233.83/0bs.9b1.myftpupload.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/2005_11.pdf
75. “George Geary,” Valley History and the Windermere Valley Museum (November 2005), p 4. [Newsletter for the Windermere Valley Musuem and Archives]. https://secureservercdn.net/198.71.233.83/0bs.9b1.myftpupload.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/2005_11.pdf

References

BC Geographical Names, “Geary Creek,” Accessed 1 September 2021. https://apps.gov.bc.ca/pub/bcgnws/names/5387.html

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